Onychomycosis – a fungal disease that affects the nail plate. Becomes brittle, thin, fragile, crumbles, changes color. The disease is highly contagious, according to statistics this disease affects about 20% of the population. Take a closer look at what types of nail fungus are and how they differ between each other
Classification of fungal infections of the nail
You can find more than 500 types of fungi, which can bring problems to health. But one rank among the fungal infections do not. The two main features that distinguish between the disease, type of infection and its localization. Photo different types of nail fungus, you can view their characteristics and properties.
The classification of the data
The infection can settle in any part of the nail, it becomes a character. The appearance of a damaged nail plate varies depending on the localization of onychomycosis.
A description of the basic forms of nail fungus on your feet
- The distal — most common type of fungus on the feet. Infected free edge of the nail. From one end of the plate, changes color, becomes brown, yellow or grey. Gradually the area is increasing. The nail plate becomes cloudy, crumble and delaminate. In the process of the development of the disease appears subungual hyperkeratosis (thickening of the stratum corneum), the defeat of the entire nail dystrophy of tissues.
- Lateral. The symptoms are the same as for the distal form, but here is the source of the infection spread from the lateral edges of the nail.
- The surface of the white. Appears only on the lower limbs, usually the fungus settles on the thumb, the other four much less. Visually, this form may differ because of the white spots, which is located on the entire surface of the nail. Over time the disease progresses and covers a large area of keratinized tissue. The color of the spots can vary from white to yellowish or greenish. The structure of the nail plate becomes friable, porous. Without treatment the nail may completely disintegrate.
- Proximal. In this form the infection begins with the cuticle, is red, inflamed, swells, changes its structure and shape. At the end of the nail wall is separated from the plate, and the infected nail becomes deformed, becomes cloudy and crumbly. If you run the disease, it is possible to complete fracture of the plate.
- Total dystrophic covers the entire surface of the nail, the old form of the proximal or distal of the fungus. The nail plate is deformed, thickens, changes color and collapses, partially or in full.
The classification by type of agent
There are different types of producer. Each of them has unique features that are important to take into account when planning the treatment of onychomycosis. Most often the cause of the disease are fungi, dermatophytes, and slightly less common yeast of the genus Candida, and the type of mold. Consider them in detail:
- Dermatophytes. These include red Trichophyton, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, flocculent Epidermophyton and many others. Once infected with these fungi, which appear dots or stripes of grey or yellow, the remaining areas become muddy, loose edge changes its color, the entire surface of the nail changes and eventually starts to separate from the nail bed. Large area panel was a different color, the more the disease started.
- Yeast fungi of the genus Candida thinner nail, causing its detachment. This type of pathogen often causes superficial white form, in which there is inflammation of the cuticle. This may be accompanied by pus and cause severe pain. If no action is taken, the nails will be brown and dry, then it completely off the nail bed.
- Mold is a relatively harmless form of the pathogen. He does not penetrate into the deeper layers of the nail, so as to cause a change of color of the plate surface. It can be brown, yellow, gray, green, black, all. Paint can cover an area in full or in part.
If you notice signs of nail fungus, be sure to consult with a specialist. Fungal infection is spreading rapidly and treatment may be delayed for months.
In the stage of development of the disease
Healthy tissue is gradually the influence of the fungus. A lot depends on what type of pathogen, but some signs allow you to highlight some of the key phase of the development of onychomycosis:
- Normotroficheskie, or home. It is not obvious manifestations, does not, at this stage it is difficult to notice the infection of the fungus. The nail becomes more matte, maybe slightly change its color, are small cracks, bumps on the surface. You can feel the burning and itching.
This period is easily confused with other diseases: psoriasis, changes in the liver. Therefore, to confirm the diagnosis is advisable to consult with a dermatologist.
- In the hypertrophic form occurs, if the action is not in the initial phase. The symptoms become more pronounced. The nail thickens and darkens, deforms the shape of the plate, it crumbles and collapses.
- Atrophic, or running. Appears when the infection spreads to the cuticle, the latter refused, inflamed and swollen. The entire surface of the nail plate, change its color, it is completely separate from the bed. Treatment may be ineffective, nail rescue is not always possible due to the atrophy.
It's good to know!
The duration of each phase of the disease of an individual depends on the health condition of the patient. By reducing the immunity of the nail fungus progresses faster.
How to treat nail fungus
A number of types of nail fungus, require their treatment. Be sure to consult a doctor, he must take the tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine what type of fungal micro-organisms was the cause of the disease.
It is necessary to draw up individualized, effective treatment plan. Self-medication can only aggravate the situation.
The most effective medications antimycotic funds quickly to cope with the pathogen and helps to completely cure the fungus.
Today is a modern and easy-to-use lacquers for the treatment of fungus on the nails. It is used in the initial phase of disease development or as a means for complex treatment.
For the dermatophytes often prescribers with fluconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazole and Itraconazole. Voriconazole and means that they contain kill the fungi from the genus dermatophytes, molds and yeasts. For the treatment of mould use of medications with itraconazole. Fungi of the genus Candida are the most frequently removed by means of fluconazole.
Contagious yeast infection – onychomycosis is very easy to catch by casual contact with the patient. There are different types of nail fungus, which vary according to the focus of infection and type of pathogen. Also there are in different stages of the disease, the initial has no striking features, but is easier and faster to treatment. If you do not take any measures, the infection will affect not only the nail and the skin around it, but spread to the entire foot. In the end, may result in the complete destruction of the nail plate. To avoid this it is advisable to consult a doctor immediately and started their assigned treatment.